A prospective study of treatments for adult-onset divergence insufficiency–type esotropia

The Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: To describe 10-week and 12-month outcomes following treatment for divergence insufficiency–type esotropia in adults. Methods: In this prospective observational study, 110 adults with divergence insufficiency–type esotropia, with a distance esodeviation measuring 2Δ to 30Δ and at least 25% larger at distance than near, and binocular diplopia present at least “sometimes” at distance, were enrolled at 28 sites when initiating new treatment. Surgery, prism, or divergence exercises/therapy were chosen at the investigator's discretion. Diplopia was assessed at enrollment and at 10-week and 12-month outcome examinations using a standardized diplopia questionnaire (DQ). Success was defined as DQ responses of “rarely” or “never” when looking straight ahead in the distance, with no alternative treatment initiated. Results: Of the 110 participants, 32 (29%) were prescribed base-out prism; none had received prior treatment for esotropia. Success criteria were met by 22 of 30 at 10 weeks (73%; 95% CI, 54%-88%) and by 16 of 26 at 12 months (62%; 95% CI, 41%-80%). For the 76 (68%) who underwent strabismus surgery (82% of whom had been previously treated with prism), success criteria were met by 69 of 74 at 10 weeks (93%; 95% CI, 85%-98%) and by 57 of 72 at 12 months (79%; 95% CI, 68%-88%). Conclusions: In this study cohort, both base-out prism as initial therapy and strabismus surgery (usually following prism) were successful in treating diplopia for most adults with divergence insufficiency–type esotropia when assessed during the first year of follow-up.[Formula

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203.e1-203.e11
JournalJournal of AAPOS
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Ophthalmology


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