A Preliminary Study

H. D. Adamson, Vera M. Regan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

148 Scopus citations


We investigate Vietnamese and Cambodian immigrants' acquisition of the variable (ing), which occurs in progressive tenses, participles, noun phrases, etc., and which can be pronounced [in] or [In]. A VARBRUL 2 program analysis of native speaker speech shows that the production of (ing) is constrained by phonological, grammatical, stylistic, and social factors. An analysis of the nonnative speakers' acquisition of these norms shows that [In] is more frequent before anterior segments (reflecting ease of articulation), and that males use [In] more frequently than females, especially in monitored speech (perhaps reflecting their desire to accommodate to a male native speaker norm rather than to an overall native speaker norm). The analysis also shows evidence of.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalStudies in Second Language Acquisition
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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