A nonstationary extreme value distribution for analysing the cessation of karst spring discharge

Yan Liu, Yonghong Hao, Yonghui Fan, Tongke Wang, Xueli Huo, Youcun Liu, Tian Chyi J. Yeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The effects of climate change and population growth in recent decades are leading us to consider their combined and potentially extreme consequences, particularly regarding hydrological processes, which can be modeled using a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. Most of the GEV models were based on a stationary assumption for hydrological processes, in contrast to the nonstationary reality due to climate change and human activities. In this paper, we present the nonstationary generalized extreme value (NSGEV) distribution and use it to investigate the risk of Niangziguan Springs discharge decreasing to zero. Rather than assuming the location, scale, and shape parameters to be constant as one might do for a stationary GEV distribution analysis, the NSGEV approach can reflect the dynamic processes by defining the GEV parameters as functions of time. Because most of the GEV model is designed to evaluate maxima (e.g. flooding, represented by positive numbers), and spring discharge cessation is a minima', we deduced an NSGEV model for minima by applying opposite numbers, i.e. negative instead of positive numbers. The results of the model application to Niangziguan Springs showed that the probability of zero discharge at Niangziguan Springs will be 1/80 in 2025, and 1/10 in 2030. After 2025, the rate of decrease in spring discharge will accelerate, and the probability that Niangziguan Springs will cease flowing will dramatically increase. The NSGEV model is a robust method for analysing karst spring discharge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5251-5258
Number of pages8
JournalHydrological Processes
Issue number20
StatePublished - Sep 30 2014


  • China
  • Flow cessation
  • Karst spring
  • Maximum likelihood
  • Niangziguan springs
  • Nonstationary generalized extreme value

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'A nonstationary extreme value distribution for analysing the cessation of karst spring discharge'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this