A multi-dimensional approach to force-directed layouts of large graphs

Pawel Gajer, Michael T. Goodrich, Stephen G. Kobourov

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

69 Scopus citations


We present a novel hierarchical force-directed method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higher-dimensional embedding into a two or three dimensional subspace of E. Projecting high-dimensional drawings onto two or three dimensions often results in drawings that are “smoother” and more symmetric. Among the other notable features of our approach are the utilization of a maximal independent set filtration of the set of vertices of a graph, a fast energy function minimization strategy, efficient memory management, and an intelligent initial placement of vertices. Our implementation of the algorithm can draw graphs with tens of thousands of vertices using a negligible amount of memory in less than one minute on a mid-range PC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationGraph Drawing - 8th International Symposium, GD 2000 ColonialWilliamsburg, VA, USA, September 20-23, 2000 Proceedings
EditorsJoe Marks
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)3540415548, 9783540415541
StatePublished - 2001
Event8th International Symposium on Graph Drawing, GD 2000 - Colonial Williamsburg, United States
Duration: Sep 20 2000Sep 23 2000

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Other8th International Symposium on Graph Drawing, GD 2000
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityColonial Williamsburg

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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