A multi-band double-inversion radial fast spin-echo technique for T2 cardiovascular magnetic resonance mapping of the heart

Mahesh Bharath Keerthivasan, Sagar Mandava, Kevin Johnson, Ryan Avery, Rajesh Janardhanan, Diego R. Martin, Ali Bilgin, Maria I. Altbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Double inversion recovery (DIR) fast spin-echo (FSE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) sequences are used clinically for black-blood T2-weighted imaging. However, these sequences suffer from slice inefficiency due to the non-selective inversion pulses. We propose a multi-band (MB) encoded DIR radial FSE (MB-DIR-RADFSE) technique to simultaneously excite two slices. This sequence has improved signal-to-noise ratio per unit time compared to a single slice excitation. It is also motion robust and enables the reconstruction of high-resolution black-blood T2-weighted images and T2 maps for the excited slices. Methods: Hadamard encoded MB pulses were used in MB-DIR-RADFSE to simultaneously excite two slices. A principal component based iterative reconstruction was used to jointly reconstruct black-blood T2-weighted images and T2 maps. Phantom and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate T2 mapping performance and results were compared to a T2-prepared balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) method. The inter-segment variability of the T2 maps were assessed using data acquired on healthy subjects. A reproducibility study was performed to evaluate reproducibility of the proposed technique. Results: Phantom experiments show that the T2 values estimated from MB-DIR-RADFSE are comparable to the spin-echo based reference, while T2-prepared bSSFP over-estimated T2 values. The relative contrast of the black-blood images from the multi-band scheme was comparable to those from a single slice acquisition. The myocardial segment analysis on 8 healthy subjects indicated a significant difference (p-value < 0.01) in the T2 estimates from the apical slice when compared to the mid-ventricular slice. The mean T2 estimate from 12 subjects obtained using T2-prepared bSSFP was significantly higher (p-value = 0.012) compared to MB-DIR-RADFSE, consistent with the phantom results. The Bland-Altman analysis showed excellent reproducibility between the MB-DIR-RADFSE measurements, with a mean T2 difference of 0.12 ms and coefficient of reproducibility of 2.07 in 15 clinical subjects. The utility of this technique is demonstrated in two subjects where the T2 maps show elevated values in regions of pathology. Conclusions: The use of multi-band pulses for excitation improves the slice efficiency of the double inversion fast spin-echo pulse sequence. The use of a radial trajectory and a joint reconstruction framework allows reconstruction of TE images and T2 maps for the excited slices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number49
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 19 2018


  • Black blood imaging
  • Double inversion recovery
  • Fast spin echo
  • Multi-band pulses
  • Radial
  • T2 mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Family Practice
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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