A low-glucose eating pattern is associated with improvements in glycemic variability among women at risk for postmenopausal breast cancer: an exploratory analysis

Michelle R. Jospe, Yue Liao, Erin D. Giles, Barry I. Hudson, Joyce M. Slingerland, Susan M. Schembre

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: High glycemic variability (GV) is a biomarker of cancer risk, even in the absence of diabetes. The emerging concept of chrononutrition suggests that modifying meal timing can favorably impact metabolic risk factors linked to diet-related chronic disease, including breast cancer. Here, we examined the potential of eating when glucose levels are near personalized fasting thresholds (low-glucose eating, LGE), a novel form of timed-eating, to reduce GV in women without diabetes, who are at risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. Methods: In this exploratory analysis of our 16-week weight loss randomized controlled trial, we included 17 non-Hispanic, white, postmenopausal women (average age = 60.7 ± 5.8 years, BMI = 34.5 ± 6.1 kg/m2, HbA1c = 5.7 ± 0.3%). Participants were those who, as part of the parent study, provided 3–7 days of blinded, continuous glucose monitoring data and image-assisted, timestamped food records at weeks 0 and 16. Pearson’s correlation and multivariate regression were used to assess associations between LGE and GV, controlling for concurrent weight changes. Results: Increases in LGE were associated with multiple unfavorable measures of GV including reductions in CGM glucose mean, CONGA, LI, J-Index, HBGI, ADDR, and time spent in a severe GV pattern (r = −0.81 to −0.49; ps < 0.044) and with increases in favorable measures of GV including M-value and LBGI (r = 0.59, 0.62; ps < 0.013). These associations remained significant after adjusting for weight changes. Conclusion: Low-glucose eating is associated with improvements in glycemic variability, independent of concurrent weight reductions, suggesting it may be beneficial for GV-related disease prevention. Further research in a larger, more diverse sample with poor metabolic health is warranted. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03546972.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1301427
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024

Keywords

  • blood glucose self-monitoring
  • continuous glucose monitoring
  • food intake regulation
  • glucose-guided eating
  • glycemic control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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