A laboratory rill study of IMX-104 transport in overland flow

Benjamin Karls, Stephen Mercer Meding, Li Li, Viktor Polyakov, Warren Kadoya, Samuel Beal, Katerina Dontsova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The deposition of explosive contaminants in particulate form onto the soil surface during low-order detonations can lead to ground and surface water contamination. The vertical fate and transport of insensitive munitions formulation IMX-104 through soil has been thoroughly studied, however the lateral transport of explosive particles on the surface is less known. The objective of this research was to understand the impact of overland flow on the transport of IMX-104 constituent compounds 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). The effect of overland flow was examined in a rill flume using several flow rates (165-, 265-, and 300-mL min−1) and IMX-104 particle sizes (4.75–9.51 mm, 2.83–4.75 mm, 2–2.83 mm, and <2 mm). We found that the smaller particles were transported more in solution and with the sediment compared to the larger particles, which had a higher percent mass remaining on the surface. As flow rate increased, there was an increase in the percent mass found in solution and sediment and a decrease in the percent mass remaining on the surface. NTO fate was dominated by transport in solution, while DNAN, RDX and HMX were predominantly transported with the sediment. This research provides evidence of the role of overland flow in the fate of energetic compounds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number136866
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • Dissolution
  • IMX-104
  • Overland flow
  • Rill
  • Transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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