A jet-driven, extreme high-velocity outflow powered by a cold, low-luminosity protostar near NGC 2023

G. Sandell, L. W. Avery, F. Baas, I. Coulson, W. R.F. Dent, P. Friberg, W. P.K. Gear, J. Greaves, W. Holland, T. Jenness, P. Jewell, J. Lightfoot, H. E. Matthews, G. Moriarty-Schieven, R. Prestage, E. I. Robson, J. Stevens, R. P.J. Tilanus, G. D. Watt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


We have discovered an extreme high-velocity bipolar CO outflow in the vicinity of NGC 2023, with total outflow velocities of ∼200 km s-1. At very high velocities this outflow is jetlike with an opening angle ≤4°, while it shows a separate outflow lobe at low velocities. The outflow is bipolar and exhibits a clear mirror symmetry, which suggests that the source powering the outflow is episodic or precessing. The dynamical timescales for the outflow are ≤3000 yr. We identify the source driving the CO jet with a deeply embedded low-luminosity submillimeter double source (separation ∼23″), where the primary component lies on the symmetry axis of the outflow and has all the signatures of a "class 0" protostellar object. Analysis of molecular data and (sub)millimeter photometry suggests that the driving source is cold and compact, with a luminosity of ≲10 L and a total mass of 1.8-4.6 M. It has no near-IR counterpart, it drives an extremely young outflow, and it emits a large fraction of its luminosity in the submillimeter regime. Both millimeter sources have low dust emissivity, β ∼ 0.8-1.3, similar to what is found for other class 0 objects, while the surrounding molecular cloud core appears to have a β ∼ 2.0, the canonical value for "normal" interstellar dust in the submillimeter regime.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)236-243
Number of pages8
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1 PART 1
StatePublished - Jul 1 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • ISM: individual (NGC 2023)
  • ISM: jets and outflows
  • ISM: molecules
  • Stars: pre-main-sequence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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