A Fast Second-order Solver for Stiff Multifluid Dust and Gas Hydrodynamics

Leonardo Krapp, Juan Garrido-Deutelmoser, Pablo Benítez-Llambay, Kaitlin M. Kratter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present MDIRK: a multifluid second-order diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method to study momentum transfer between gas and an arbitrary number (N) of dust species. The method integrates the equations of hydrodynamics with an implicit-explicit scheme and solves the stiff source term in the momentum equation with a diagonally implicit, asymptotically stable Runge-Kutta method (DIRK). In particular, DIRK admits a simple analytical solution that can be evaluated with O ( N ) operations, instead of standard matrix inversion, which is O ( N ) 3 . Therefore, the analytical solution significantly reduces the computational cost of the multifluid method, making it suitable for studying the dynamics of systems with particle-size distributions. We demonstrate that the method conserves momentum to machine precision and converges to the correct equilibrium solution with constant external acceleration. To validate our numerical method we present a series of simple hydrodynamic tests, including damping of sound waves, dusty shocks, a multifluid dusty Jeans instability, and a steady-state gas-dust drift calculation. The simplicity of MDIRK lays the groundwork to build fast high-order, asymptotically stable multifluid methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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