A dietary modification approach to improve the osmoregulatory capacity of Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in the Arizona desert

H. Gong, D. H. Jiang, D. V. Lightner, C. Collins, D. Brock

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    98 Scopus citations


    A modified diet was formulated for Arizona inland shrimp farming and tested as a method for reducing moult-associated mortalities presumed due to trace mineral deficiencies. The experimental diet was supplemented with additional dietary magnesium, potassium, phospholipids and cholesterol to a commercial shrimp feed (Rangen 45/10, which was also used as the control diet). The modified diet was tested at Arizona Mariculture Associates (AMA), while the control diet was used at a nearby inland shrimp farm, Desert Sweet Shrimp Farm (DSSF). Both feeds were used throughout the culture season of 2001. Earthen pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei at intermoult stages (C-D0) and ranging from 7 to 30 g were sampled at intervals for determination of haemolymph osmolality (HO). Results showed that the modified diet had not only resulted in larger size shrimp at harvest, but also improved osmoregulatory capacity (OC). HO of DSSF shrimp decreased as shrimp grew bigger, whereas HO of AMA shrimp was maintained at a stable level, or showed a slightly positive linear relationship with weight. The hyper-OC of shrimp from AMA (462 mOsm kg-1) was greater than that from DSSF (398 mOsm kg-1). Shrimp at AMA fed the experimental diet presented no mass moult-associated mortalities. To further investigate the iso-osmotic point of shrimp reared in AMA, a group of six salinity gradients were designed by mixing oceanic salts into the well water to form 5, 8.5, 11.4, 14.4, 17.8, 20.7 p.p.t. medium. HO of subadult shrimp (25 g in average) were then evaluated 48 h after they had been transferred from 5 p.p.t. pond water to the medium. Shrimp HO increased with external salinity, and a plateau formed as salinity reached at 11.4 p.p.t. and higher. The iso-osmotic point of shrimp was estimated to be 695.5 mOsm kg-1, equivalent to 26.1 p.p.t. in AMA well water.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)227-236
    Number of pages10
    JournalAquaculture Nutrition
    Issue number4
    StatePublished - Aug 2004


    • Dietary modification
    • Inland shrimp farming
    • Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Low salinity
    • Osmoregulatory
    • Well water

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Aquatic Science


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