A classical morphological analysis of galaxies in the spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S4G)

Ronald J. Buta, Kartik Sheth, E. Athanassoula, A. Bosma, Johan H. Knapen, Eija Laurikainen, Heikki Salo, Debra Elmegreen, Luis C. Ho, Dennis Zaritsky, Helene Courtois, Joannah L. Hinz, Juan Carlos Munoz-Mateos, Taehyun Kim, Michael W. Regan, Dimitri A. Gadotti, Armando Gil De Paz, Jarkko Laine, Karln Menendez-Delmestre, Sebastien ComeronSantiago Erroz Ferrer, Mark Seibert, Trisha Mizusawa, Benne Holwerda, Barry F. Madore

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191 Scopus citations


The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) is the largest available database of deep, homogeneous middle-infrared (mid-IR) images of galaxies of all types. The survey, which includes 2352 nearby galaxies, reveals galaxy morphology only minimally affected by interstellar extinction. This paper presents an atlas and classifications of S4G galaxies in the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage (CVRHS) system. The CVRHS system follows the precepts of classical de Vaucouleurs morphology, modified to include recognition of other features such as inner, outer, and nuclear lenses, nuclear rings, bars, and disks, spheroidal galaxies, X patterns and box/peanut structures, OLR subclass outer rings and pseudorings, bar ansae and barlenses, parallel sequence late-types, thick disks, and embedded disks in 3D early-type systems. We show that our CVRHS classifications are internally consistent, and that nearly half of the S4G sample consists of extreme late-type systems (mostly bulgeless, pure disk galaxies) in the range Scd-Im. The most common family classification for mid-IR types S0/a to Sc is SA while that for types Scd to Sm is SB. The bars in these two type domains are very different in mid-IR structure and morphology. This paper examines the bar, ring, and type classification fractions in the sample, and also includes several montages of images highlighting the various kinds of "stellar structures" seen in mid-IR galaxy morphology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number32
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015


  • atlases
  • galaxies: elliptical and lenticular
  • galaxies: irregular
  • galaxies: spiral
  • galaxies: structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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  • S4G galaxy morphologies in the CVRHS system

    Buta, R. J. (Creator), Sheth, K. (Creator), Athanassoula, E. (Creator), Bosma, A. (Creator), Knapen, J. H. (Creator), Laurikainen, E. (Creator), Salo, H. (Creator), Elmegreen, D. (Creator), Ho, L. C. (Creator), Zaritsky, D. F. (Creator), Courtois, H. (Creator), Hinz, J. L. (Creator), Munoz-Mateos, J. (Creator), Kim, T. (Creator), Regan, M. W. (Creator), Gadotti, D. A. (Creator), Paz, A. G. D. (Contributor), Laine, J. (Creator), Menendez-Delmestre, K. (Creator), Comeron, S. (Creator), Ferrer, S. E. (Contributor), Seibert, M. (Creator), Mizusawa, T. (Creator), Holwerda, B. (Creator), Madore, B. F. (Creator), Courtois, H. (Creator) & Erroz-Ferrer, S. (Creator), Centre de Donnees Strasbourg (CDS), 2015


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