A Case Report of Severe Factor XI Deficiency during Cardiac Surgery: Less Can Be More

Toshinobu Kazui, Vance G. Nielsen, Spencer D. Audie, Rajagopalan M. Venkataramani, John T. Bryant, Kristin Swenson, Paul M. Ford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Severe congenital Factor XI (FXI) deficiency (<20% normal activity) can be associated with significant bleeding disorders, and there has been great concern for severe bleeding following cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in this patient population. Over the past four decades remarkably different approaches to this problem have been taken, including the administration of blood volumes of fresh frozen plasma, administration of activated recombinant Factor VII, and diminutive administration of heparin. We describe a case wherein the patient was assessed in the perioperative period with a point-of-care, viscoelastic hemostasis device (ROTEM), with changes in the intrinsic/Factor XII-dependent coagulation pathway determined before, during, and after CPB. Fresh frozen plasma was administered in small amounts (5–7.5 mL/kg) just before surgery began and just before cessation of CPB. Administering fresh frozen plasma to the patient to nearly normalize in vitro ROTEM hemostasis values at times when hemostasis was needed resulted in no important bleeding occurring or need of further transfusion of other blood products. In conclusion, by using small amounts of fresh frozen plasma guided by ROTEM, an evidenced-based, precision medicine approach resulted in optimized patient care and outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number118
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • cardiopulmonary bypass
  • perioperative outcomes
  • rotational thromboelastimetry
  • severe factor XI deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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