A 3-D luneburg lens antenna fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping

Min Liang, Wei Ren Ng, Kihun Chang, Kokou Gbele, Michael E. Gehm, Hao Xin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

227 Scopus citations


In this work, we designed, built, and tested a low-gain 20 dBi Luneburg Lens antenna using a rapid prototyping machine as a proof of concept demonstrator. The required continuously varying relative permittivity profile was implemented by changing the size of plastic blocks centered on the junctions of a plastic rod space frame. A 12-cm (4λ0 at at 10 GHz) diameter lens is designed to work at X-band. The effective permittivity of the unit cell is calculated by effective medium theory and simulated by full-wave finite-element simulations. The fabrication is implemented by a polymer jetting rapid prototyping method. In the measurement, the lens antenna is fed by an X-band waveguide. The measured gain of the antenna at X-band is from 17.3 to 20.3 dB. The measured half-power beam width is from 19° to 12.7° while the side lobes are about 25 dB below the main peak. Good agreement between simulation and experimental results is obtained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6698375
Pages (from-to)1799-1807
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2014


  • Gradient index
  • Luneburg lens
  • lens antenna
  • rapid prototyping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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