[4]Helicenium Ion as Bipolar Redox Material for Symmetrical Fully Organic Pole-less Redox Flow Battery

Jules Moutet, David D. Mills, Diego L. Lozier, Thomas L. Gianetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Long duration storage batteries such as Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs) are promising storage system to address the energy storage requirement that our society will require in the years to come. Recent effort has been focused on the development of metal free and high energy density system such as all-organic non-aqueous redox flow batteries (NAORFBs). However high-voltage NAORFBs currently use distinct anolytes and catholytes, which are separated by a membrane sensitive to osmotic pressure, resulting in rapid capacity and energy density degradation over time. To address this issue, symmetric organic redox flow batteries (SORFBs) have been proposed as an elegant solution. We have introduced dimethoxyquinacridiniums (DMQA+) ions as efficient bipolar redox molecules (BRMs) in static H-cell conditions. In this study, we present the first application of DMQA+ ions in a complete flow RFB prototype, showcasing their ability to operate with polarity reversal. Key kinetic properties were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and DFT calculations. While coulombic and energy efficiency metrics were moderate, pegylated DMQA+ demonstrated impressive capacity retention of over 99.99 % and the capability to operate under polarity inversion, making it a highly attractive choice for grid-scale, long-lifespan energy storage applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBatteries and Supercaps
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • bipolar molecule
  • electrolyte design
  • energy storage
  • helical carbenium ⋅
  • nonaqueous redox flow battery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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