Three-dimensional structure fabrication using discrete building blocks provides a versatile pathway for the creation of complex nanophotonic devices. The processing of individual components can generally support high-resolution, multiple-material, and variegated structures that are not achievable in a single step using top-down or hybrid methods. In addition, these methods are additive in nature, using minimal reagent quantities and producing little to no material waste. In this article, we review the most promising technologies that build structures using the placement of discrete components, focusing on laser-induced transfer, light-directed assembly, and inkjet printing. We discuss the underlying principles and most recent advances for each technique, as well as existing and future applications. These methods serve as adaptable platforms for the next generation of functional three-dimensional nanophotonic structures.
- 3D fabrication
- building blocks
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering