To investigate vitamin D-related control of brain-expressed genes, candidate vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) at 27/210 kb in human tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)2 were probed. Both VDREs bound the vitamin D receptor (VDR)-retinoid X receptor (RXR) complex and drove reporter gene transcription in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D). Brain TPH2 mRNA, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, was induced 2.2-fold by 10 nM 1,25D in human U87 glioblastoma cells and 47.8-fold in rat serotonergic RN46A-B14 cells. 1,25D regulation of leptin (Lep), encoding a serotoninlike satiety factor, was also examined. In mouse adipocytes, 1,25D repressed leptin mRNA levels by at least 84%, whereas 1,25D induced leptin mRNA 15.1-fold in human glioblastoma cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis of the mouse Lep gene in response to 1,25D revealed a cluster of regulatory sites (cis-regulatory module; CRM) at 228 kb that 1,25D-dependently docked VDR, RXR, C/EBPb, and RUNX2. This CRM harbored 3 VDREs and single C/EBPb and RUNX2 sites. Therefore, the expression of human TPH2 and mouse Lep are governed by 1,25D, potentially via respective VDREs located at 27/210 kb and 228 kb. These results imply that vitamin D affects brain serotonin concentrations, which may be relevant to psychiatric disorders, such as autism, and may control leptin levels and affect eating behavior.-Kaneko, I., Sabir, M. S., Dussik, C. M., Whitfield, G. K., Karrys, A., Hseih, J.-C., Haussler, M. R., Meyer, M. B., Pike, J. W., Jurutka, P. W. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D regulates expression of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and leptin genes: implication for behavioral influences of vitamin D. FASEB J. 29, 4023-4035 (2015).
- Chromatin immunoprecipitation
- Cis-regulatory module
- Neuropsychiatric disorders
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology