Recent applications have shown that light field imaging can be useful for developing uniaxial three-dimensional (3D) endoscopes. The immediate challenges in implementation are a tradeoff in lateral resolution and acquiring enough depth information in the physically limited environment of minimally invasive surgery. Here we propose using programmable aperture light field imaging in laparoscopy to capture 3D information without sacrificing the camera sensor’s native, high spatial resolution. This hybrid design utilizes a programmable aperture to preserve the conventional laparoscope’s functionality and, upon demand, to compute a depth map for surgical guidance. A working prototype is demonstrated.