Abstract Background Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) exhibits dual functionality – as an intracellular enzyme regulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and as an extracellular secreted protein (eNAMPT) to function as a cytokine regulator of innate immunity via binding to Toll-Like receptor 4 and NF-κB activation. In limited preclinical and clinical studies, eNAMPT was implicated in the pathobiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) suggesting that eNAMPT could potentially serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. We investigated the feasibility of circulating eNAMPT levels to serve as a biomarker in an expanded cohort of patients with ARDS and ARDS-predisposing conditions that included acute pancreatitis, sepsis, and trauma with comparisons to controls. Methods A total of 671 patients and 179 healthy controls were included in two independent cohorts. Plasma and serum eNAMPT levels were quantified using one of two complementary Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. After log base 2 variance stabilizing transformation of plasma/serum eNAMPT measurements, differences between healthy controls and each disease cohort were compared using linear regression or a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model where applicable. Complementary analyses included sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values, and the area under the receiver operating curve. Results Compared to controls, circulating eNAMPT levels were significantly elevated in subjects with acute pancreatitis, sepsis, trauma, and ARDS (all p < 0.01). In the acute pancreatitis cohort, circulating eNAMPT levels positively correlated with disease severity (p < 0.01). Conclusions Circulating eNAMPT levels are novel biomarker in the critically ill with acute pancreatitis, sepsis, trauma, and/or ARDS with the potential to reflect disease severity.
|Date made available||2022|